- Future vs Continuous action
- Decisions I
- Decision II
- Opinions / Predictions
- Future Perfect
The Future Perfect
What is it for? When should we not use it?
The Future Perfect is an action that will have finished in the future.
Just like the other perfect tenses, the Future Perfect Simple expresses a focus on the result. The Future Perfect Continuous focuses on the action.
subject + will + have + (verb past participle)
I will have finished dinner by 8pm = I will be free at 8pm
I will have left work at 7pm = I won’t be at work / I will be on a journey
-When shall we leave?
– Well, the last train will have left at midnight so, we should go now or we will miss it!
When planning, we can use the future perfect to describe something that has ended in the future, so that something else can happen.
The film will have ended at 9pm so I’ll meet you at the net café at 9.30.
She will have visited five countries by December.
I can’t meet you at 9pm, I’ll be watching a film, but the film will have ended by 9.30, so let’s meet at 10!
‘by’ vs ‘at’
At 9pm = precisely this time
By 9pm = any time up to
I will have finished dinner by 8.30, so I can meet you at 9pm at the latest.
Classes will have ended by 4pm, if I’m lucky they will finish earlier!
I will be free / I will have be free at 7pm
My class will have ended / will been ending by 5pm
At 11am tomorrow morning, I will be sleeping / I will have slept 8 hours!
By Friday I will work/ have worked 50 hours this week. I will be /will have been dead.
The Future Perfect Continuous
It’s really not common to use this! We usually talk about working or living because the action has an impact on the future and continues!
By 2020, I will have been working for this company for 20 years. Yes, I started working here in 2000. I have been working here ever since.
Next year, Takuma will have been running the dojo in Mexico for ten years, so we need to plan a big party!